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RELATIONSHIP WITH AGE MOVEMENT Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Exon 21 IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER adenocarcinoma

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is considered as a vicious case with the highest mortality level in the world. There are two kinds of lung cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) dan Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC). Most of the case is NSCLC, which is 85-90% out of all lung cancer cases. Adenocarcinoma is considered as the most frequent of NSCLC subtypes as well as in lung cancer patients, which is 38% out of all the lung cancer cases. Adenocarcinoma is often related with mutations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene, especially in exon 21. There is presumption that age might be the indicator of the mutation of EGFR gene exon 21. In the era of molecular, targeted therapy has been found to improve the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR gene mutation. However, research on the relationship of adenocarcinoma of the lung with mutations in the EGFR gene in particular exon 21, has never been done in Indonesia. OBJETIVE: to analyze the correlation between age and the frequency of mutations of EGFR gene exon 21 in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. METHOD: A cross-sectional design was performed in this study by collecting cytopathology samples which was already diagnosed by at least two independent pathologists as adenocarcinoma of the lung. A polymerase chain reaction & electrophoresis were also performed prior to mutation detection of EGFR gene exon 21 by squencing. From the collected data, Fishers exact test was performed to analyze the relation of the age and the mutation of EGFR gene exon 21. RESULT: From 30 patients, age range from 46 until 75 years old, the median is 56 which is used as the cut off age. five out of thirty samples are proved to have mutations of exon 21 with average age is 55 years old. There is no significant age difference between patients with or without mutation of EGFR gene exon 21. CONLUSION: EGFR mutations in exon 21 were more frequently found in lung cancer patients age more than or equal to 56 years old compared to those <56 years old, although the difference was not statistically significant.


ABSTRACT: Background: Breast cancer is one of the cancers that are found in the world. Macrophages are found in cancer known as Tumors Asociated Macrophage (TAM), which includes M1 and M2 macrophage phenotype. Histological grade are important predictors in the assessment of breast cancer. Previous research has suggested that the phenotype of macrophages may have a role against breast cancer. Objective: This study aimed to examine the number of macrophages M1 and M2 and the grading of histology tumor in Sprague Dawley rats models of breast carcinoma induced by 7.12 Dimethylbenz (α) Anthracene (DMBA). Methods: A total of subjects were 15 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups; group 1 was given feed, group 2 were given corn oil, and group 3 treatment-induced DMBA. This conducted in 15 weeks. M1 macrophages were analyzed by immunohistochemistry staining (IHC) with anti iNOS antibody and M2 macrophages were by immunohistochemistry staining with antibodies anti arginase-1. The grade of histological staining analyzed with hematoxylin eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry staining using antibodies PCNA. Results: In the group of DMBA number of cells expressing iNOS and arginase-1 more than the control group. Number of M1 macrophages in the control group amounted to 17.25 % and 28.14 % of M2, M1 in the corn oil group M2 15.36 % and 21.95 % and 62.09 % of DMBA-induced macrophage M1 and M2 by 64,06 %. Breast carcinoma only found in 5 rat in the group with the DMBA histology grade 1, 2 and 3, and based on descriptive observation found that in rat that have a histology grade 3, the number of macrophages M2 more than rats that have 1 or 2 grade histology. Conclusions: The number of macrophages in induced DMBA group showed the number of macrophages M2 greater than M1. In the model of breast carcinoma Sprague Dawley rat were induced by DMBA, the number of M2 macrophages is most often found in rats that have a grade of tumor histology 3.

Dose Estimation Planning Simulator in Case Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Unit dr. Sardjito

ABSTRACT: Planning simulator is an important stage in the simulation of radiotherapy treatment for cancer patients. The determination of the radiation field will floroscopically guided. In breast cancer radiotherapy, there are five radiation field that will be determined such as supraclava, centra mammae interna, internal tangential, external tangential and axilla, so planning simulator duration and fluoroscopy exposure duration will much longer than others cancer cases. Based on that reason, measurement of patient�s skin dose was conducted in breast cancer patients. Each patient was measured planning simulator duration (Tsimulator), fluoroscopy exposure duration (Teksposi), voltage (v) and current (i) used on fluoroscopy, and measurement patient�s skin effective dose with pocket dosimeter RAD 60 S. The result showed that the maximum patient�s skin dose is 23,06 mSv. The use of fluoroscopy in General Hospital Center dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta has fulfilled Bapeten Chief�s regulatory number 8 year 2011 with maximum patient�s skin dose rate is 4,9928 mSv/min. Tsimulator is 40 minutes 42 seconds and Teksposi is 4 minutes 20 seconds.

Estimation of Mortality and Years of Life Lost (YLL) Cancer Due to Smoking in Indonesia

ABSTRACT: Smoking is a major risk factor cause of deaths in chronic diseases including cancer. Indonesia, the fourth largest cigarette consumption in the world endures the burden of cancer attributable to smoking. This study was estimated the burden of cancer attributable to smoking which can be used as background for policy decisions related to smoking and also determining prioritization of tobacco control. The burden of cancer attributable to smoking was estimated using descriptive epidemiological studies and prevalence-based method. The indicators are mortality and Years of Life Lost (YLL). Mortality of cancer related to smoking is obtained by multiplying Smoking Attributable Fractions (SAFs) with number of cancer deaths, wherever SAFs is obtained with a calculation formula contains data of smoking prevalence and relative risk of each cancer. Years of Life Lost (YLL) is obtained by multiplying the number of cancer deaths with should life-remaining based on Indonesian standard life expectancy. The highest SAFs are lung cancer (84.60%), larynx cancer (80.49%) and other pharynx cancer (79.90%). The highest mortality of cancer related to smoking are lung cancer (30,904 deaths), colorectal cancer (18,398 deaths) and liver cancer (17,175 deaths). The highest rates of YLL are lung cancer (324,814 years), liver cancer (59,197 deaths) and nasopharynx cancer (44,610 years). Based on the results, tobacco smoking efforts need to control and so can reducing the burden of cancer attributable to smoking.

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